SHAVOUT / PENTECOST
It is a Hebrew Yashar’e’liym (Yisraelite) Feast Observance
Shavuot has a double significance. It marks the all-important wheat harvest in the Land of Yashar’el (Yisrael) (Exodus 34:22); and it commemorates the anniversary of the day YAHUAH gave the Torah to the entire nation of Yashar’el (Yisrael) assembled at Mount Sinai, although the association between the giving of the Torah (Matan Torah) and Shavuot is not explicit in the Scriptural text.
The Torah mandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second day of Passover, to be immediately followed by Shavuot.
This counting of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for the giving of the Torah.
On Passover, the people of Yashar’el (Yisrael) were freed from their enslavement to Pharaoh; on Shavuot they were
given the Torah and became a nation committed to serving YAHUAH. The word Shavuot means weeks, and the festival of Shavuot marks the completion of the seven-week counting period between Passover and Shavuot.
Names in the Torah
In the Scriptures, Shavuot is called the Festival of Weeks (Hebrew: חג השבועות, Ḥag ha-Shavuot, Exodus 34:22, Deuteronomy 16:10); Festival of Reaping (Hebrew: חג הקציר, Ḥag ha-Katsir, Exodus 23:16), and Day of the First Fruits (Hebrew יום הבכורים, Yom ha-Bikkurim, Numbers 28:26).
Shavuot, the plural of a word meaning “week” or “seven”, alludes to the fact that this festival happens exactly seven weeks (i.e. “a week of weeks”) after Passover.
The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes
This literal interpretation of ‘Shabbat’ as the weekly Shabbat, was shared by the 2nd-century BCE author of the Book of Jubilees who was motivated by the priestly sabbatical solar calendar of the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, which was designed to have festivals and Sabbaths fall on the same day of the week every year.
On this calendar (best known from the Book of Luminaries in 1 Enoch), Shavuot falls on a Sunday.
The date was reckoned fifty days from the first Sabbath after Passover. Thus, Jub. 1:1 claims that Moses ascended Mount Sinai to receive the Torah “on the sixteenth day of the third month in the first year of the Exodus of the children of Yashar’el (Yisrael) from Egypt”.
In Jub. 6:15–22 and 44:1–5, the Observance is traced to the appearance of the first rainbow, the day on which YAHUAH made his covenant with Noah.
Edited by GWT